Cebuano is spoken by the majority of people in Mindanao. Cebuano is generally the native language in most regions, except for the Muslim areas on the west coast and among the hill tribes.

The Spanish-based creole, Chavacano is the lingua franca in the Zamboanga peninsula and Basilan province. The dialect Zamboangueño Chavacano is one of the six dialects of Chavacano (whose native speakers are known as the Zamboangueño Latino). Zamboangueño Chavacano is also spoken as a minority language in some other points of Mindanao such as Davao and Cotabato. Zamboangueño Chavacano is also recognized as minority language in Sabah as well.

There are still a number of Spanish speakers, most of them elderly members of mestizo families.

Christians form the majority, with 63% of the population; Muslims are 32% of the population (mostly on the southern part of the island); 5% are affiliated with other religions. The native Maguindanaon and other native Muslim or non-Muslim groups of Mindanao have a culture that is different from the main cultures of the Southern Philippines.


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